Glossary of Terms

AAP

Please see "American Academy of Pediatrics."

ADA

Please see "Americans with Disabilities Act."

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

The mission of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care for all Americans. For more information, visit http://ahrq.gov.

AHRQ

Please see "Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality."

American Academy of Pediatrics

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the attainment of optimal, physical, mental, and social health and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. For more information, visit http://www.aap.org.

Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in everyday activities, such as buying an item at the store, going to the movies, enjoying a meal at a local restaurant, exercising at the health club, or having the car serviced at a local garage. For more information, visit http://www.ada.gov/business.htm.

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BMI

Please see "Body Mass Index."

BMI-for-age

BMI-for-age is a screening tool used to identify children and adolescents who are underweight and overweight. Unlike BMI for adults, BMI-for-age is both age and gender specific, and is not used for children younger than 2 years. This tool can be used to trace overweight from childhood into adulthood, correlates well with clinical factors for cardiovascular disease, and provides a reference for adolescents not previously available.

body mass index

A mathematical formula to assess relative body weight. The measure correlates highly with body fat. Calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m 2 ). For more information, visit http://www.americanheart.org.

CAHMI

Please see the "Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative."

CAHPS-CCC

Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers abd Systems survey (please see definition below) with the addition of the Children with Chronic Conditions (CCC) module. For more information, visit https://www.cahps.ahrq.gov.

CAHPS®

Please see the "Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey®."

care coordination

Care Coordination refers to those services that promote the effective and efficient organization and utilization of resources to ensure access to necessary comprehensive services for children with special health care needs and their families. (Source: http://www.hdwg.org/catalyst/glossary)

CATCH

Please see "Community Access to Child Health."

CATI

Please see "Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing."

CDC

Please see "Center for Disease Control and Prevention."

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. For more information, visit http://www.cdc.gov .

Center for Health Care Strategies

The Center for Health Care Strategies (CHCS) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the quality and cost effectiveness of publicly financed health care for people with chronic health needs, the elderly, and racially and ethnically diverse populations. CHCS works with state and federal agencies, health plans, providers, and consumers to design programs that better serve high-need and high-cost populations. For more information, visit http://www.chcs.org.

Center for Medical Home Improvement

The mission of the Center for Medical Home Improvement (CMHI) is to establish and support networks of parent/professional teams to improve the quality of primary care medical homes for children and youth with special health care needs and their families. For more information, visit http://www.medicalhomeimprovement.org.

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' mission is to ensure effective, up-to-date health care coverage and to promote quality care for beneficiaries. For more information, visit http://www.cms.hhs.gov.

Champions for Progress

Located at the Early Intervention Research Institute at Utah State University, Champions for Progress was a collaborative network of families, communities, and agencies committed to leadership development for implementing systems of care for children with special health care needs and their families. 

chance

An unexpected, random, or unpredictable event.

CHCS

Please see "Center for Health Care Strategies."

Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative

The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative was established in 1998. Its mission is to advance a high quality, consumer-centered health care system for children, youth and families by providing leadership and resources for measuring and communicating information about the quality of health care for children and adolescents. The CAHMI involves consumer organizations, federal and state policymakers, health care purchasers, researchers, practitioners and others that influence health care delivery, quality measurement and reporting to develop, test and deploy consumer-centered quality measures. For more information, visit http://www.cahmi.org.

Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN, CYSHCN)

The definition of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN, CYSHCN) comes from the federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau and is used to identify the sample in the NS-CSHCN 2001 & 2005/06 and the NSCH 2003. Children with special health care needs are those who have or are at increased risk for a chronic physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional condition and who also require health and related services of a type or amount beyond that required by children generally. (McPherson M, Arango P, Fox H, et al. (1998) "A new definition of children with special health care needs", Pediatrics, 102: 137-140).

CI

Please see "confidence interval."

CMHI

Please see "Center for Medical Home Improvement."

CMS

Please see "Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services."

Community Access to Child Health

The mission of CATCH is to support pediatricians who work with communities to ensure that all children have medical homes and access to any other needed health care services. For more information, visit https://www2.aap.org/catch/.

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing

Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) systems manage the survey sample for each interviewer and collect the respondent's data from the interviewer's direct entry into electronic files. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

confidence interval

A range that contains the true population prevalence estimate a specified percentage of the time, if repeated sampling of the population were performed. The 95% confidence interval (CI) is a range that contains the true population estimate 95% of the time. A smaller range indicates an estimate that is more precise. Small sample sizes or cells with low numbers generate less precise estimates and will have wider confidence intervals. (Sources: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss, and http://web.archive.org/web/20100403042030/http://www.talkingquality.gov/general/glossary.htm)

Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey®

The Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey® (CAHPS®) is a patient-reported experience of care survey. Adult and child versions are available. Commercial and public purchasers, health plans, and purchasing coalitions can use the CAHPS® survey and reporting kit to gather and disseminate comparable information on health care quality from the patient's perspective. Development of the CAHPS® is funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). For more information, visit https://www.cahps.ahrq.gov.

CSHCN

Please see "Children with Special Health Care Needs."

cultural competency

The ability to provide services to clients that honor different cultural beliefs, interpersonal styles, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as the use of multicultural staff in the policy development, administration, and provision of those services.

CYSHCN

Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs. Please see "Children with Special Health Care Needs."

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data

Numerical information. Data is a plural term; the singular is datum.

dependent variable

A variable that may be predicted by or caused by one or more other variables called independent variables. For example, if it is believed that age influences the frequency of delinquent behavior, age is the independent variable and frequency of delinquent behavior is the dependent variable.

direct health services

Those services generally delivered one-on-one between a health professional and a patient in an office, clinic, or emergency room, which may include primary care physicians, registered dietitians, public health or visiting nurses, nurses certified for obstetric and pediatric primary care, medical social workers, nutritionists, dentists, subspecialty physicians who serve children with special health care needs, audiologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech and language therapists, specialty registered dietitians. Basic services include what most consider ordinary medical care, inpatient and outpatient medical services, allied health services, drugs, laboratory testing, x-ray services, dental care, and pharmaceutical products and services.

distribution

A distribution is the spread of values from a given population. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

Early & Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, & Treatment

The Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment (EPSDT) service is Medicaid's comprehensive and preventive child health program for individuals under the age of 21. EPSDT was defined by law as part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 (OBRA '89) legislation and includes periodic screening, vision, dental, and hearing services. In addition, Section 1905(r)(5) of the Social Security Act (the Act) requires that any medically necessary health care service listed at Section 1905(a) of the Act be provided to an EPSDT recipient even if the service is not available under the State's Medicaid plan to the rest of the Medicaid population. The EPSDT program consists of two mutually supportive, operational components: (1) assuring the availability and accessibility of required health care resources; and (2) helping Medicaid recipients and their parents or guardians effectively use these resources. For more information, visit http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicaidEarlyPeriodicScrn.

Early Intervention Research Institute

Early Intervention Research Institute (EIRI) is an interdisciplinary organization committed to investigating and improving policies and practices that support the well-being of at-risk children as well as those with special needs and their families. We conduct research as well as provide training and technical assistance at community, state, national, and international levels. For more information, visit http://eiri.usu.edu.

EPSDT

Please see "Early & Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, & Treatment."

EREI

Please see "Early Intervention Research Institute."

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Family Voices

Family Voices (FV) is a national grassroots network of families and friends, advocates for health care services that are family-centered, community-based, comprehensive, coordinated and culturally competent for all children and youth with special health care needs; promotes the inclusion of all families as decision makers at all levels of health care; and supports essential partnerships between families and professionals. For more information, visit http://www.familyvoices.org.

Family Voices State Coordinators

Family Voices is represented in every state, as well as Washington D.C., Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, by Network Members, either 1 or 2 appointed State Coordinators or by Chapter Representatives. Many state organizations are volunteer while some are able to operate on a funded basis, generally through grants directly to their state Family Voices organization or to an associated organization. For more information, visit http://www.familyvoices.org.

family-centered care

A system or philosophy of care that incorporates the family as an integral component of the health care system.

Federal Poverty Level

The Federal Poverty Level numbers are based on the Federal Poverty Guidelines issued annually by the Department of Health and Human Services. It is used as a measure of eligibility for a wide variety of state and federal programs. For more information, visit http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty.

FPL

Please see "Federal Poverty Level."

frequency table

A frequency table is a way of summarizing a set of data. It is a record of how often each value (or set of values) of the variable in question occurs. It may be enhanced by the addition of percentages that fall into each category. (Source: Department of Statistics of the University of Glasgow, http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk)

FV

Please see "Family Voices."

Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set

The Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) is a list of about 60 standardized performance measures developed and maintained by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) in Washington, DC. Currently, most health plans report their HEDIS(r) results directly to NCQA as well as to their larger customers. For more information, visit http://www.ncqa.org/tabid/59/Default.aspx.

Health Resources and Services Administration

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)'s mission is to provide national leadership, program resources and services needed to improve access to culturally competent, quality health care. For more information, visit http://www.hrsa.gov/index.html.

Healthy People 2010

Healthy People 2010 is a federal health initiative designed to promote preventative health in the United States, with the ultimate goals of increasing the quality and years of healthy life for citizens and eliminating health disparities. Designed by health experts inside and outside of the government, it identifies a wide range of public health priorities and specific, measurable objectives. For more information, visit http://www.healthypeople.gov.

HEDIS

Please see the "Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set."

HP 2010

Please see "Healthy People 2010."

HRSA

Please see "Health Resources and Services Administration."

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ICHP

Please see "Institute for Child Health Policy."

IDEA

Please see "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act."

independent variable

A variable that may predict or cause fluctuation in a dependent variable. For example, if it is believed that age influences the frequency of delinquent behavior, age is the independent variable and frequency of delinquent behavior is the dependent variable.

indicator

Statistical indicators are any quantitative data (often a single value derived from multiple individual survey questions) that provide evidence about the quality or standard of health.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the law that guarantees all children with disabilities access to a free and appropriate public education. (Source: Disabilities Studies and Services Center, http://www.dssc.org)

Institute for Child Health Policy

The mission of the Institute for Child Health Policy (ICHP) is to research, evaluate, formulate, and advance health policies, programs, and systems that promote the health and well-being of children and youth. (Source: Institute for Child Health Policy website, http://www.ichp.ufl.edu)

Maternal and Child Health Bureau

The mission of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) is to provide national leadership, in partnership with key stakeholders, to improve the physical and mental health, safety and well-being of the maternal and child health (MCH) population which includes all of the nation’s women, infants, children, adolescents, and their families, including fathers and children with special health care needs. For more information, visit http://www.mchb.hrsa.gov.

MCHB

Please see "Maternal and Child Health Bureau."

mean

The mean is the arithmetic average of a data set; the sum of the values divided by number of values. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

median

The median is the middle value of observations arranged in order of magnitude. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

medical home

Medical home is primary care that is accessible, continuous, comprehensive, family centered, coordinated, compassionate, and culturally effective. In a medical home, a pediatric clinician works in partnership with the family/patient to assure that all of the medical and non-medical needs of the patient are met. Through this partnership, the pediatric clinician can help the family/patient access and coordinate specialty care, educational services, out-of-home care, family support, and other public and private community services that are important to the overall health of the child/youth and family. For more information, visit http://www.medicalhomeinfo.org.

Metropolitan Statistical Areas

Metropolitan statistical areas (MSA) are geographic entities defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) using published standards that are applied to Census Bureau data. A MSA is a county or group of contiguous counties that contains at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more population. In addition to the county or counties that contain all or part of the urbanized area, an MSA may contain other counties that are economically and socially integrated with the main city as measured by work commuting. For more information, please visit http://www.census.gov/population/www/metroareas/metrodef.html.

MSA

Please see "Metropolitian Statistical Areas."

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n

Represents the actual number of observations in a sample, such as responses to a survey question.

NASHP

Please see "National Academy for State Health Policy."

National Academy for State Health Policy

National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP) is an independent academy of state health policymakers working together to identify emerging issues, develop policy solutions, and improve state health policy and practice. NASHP provides a forum for constructive, nonpartisan work across branches and agencies of state government on critical health issues facing states. For more information, visit http://www.nashp.org.

National Center for Cultural Competence

The mission of the National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC) is to increase the capacity of health and mental health programs to design, implement, and evaluate culturally and linguistically competent service delivery systems. For more information, visit http://nccc.georgetown.edu.

National Center for Health Statistics

National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) compiles statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of people. They are a public resource for health information–-a critical element of public health and health policy. For more information, visit http://www.cdc.gov/nchs.

National Committee for Quality Assurance

The National Committee for Quality Assurance's vision is to transform health care quality through measurement, transparency and accountability. For more information, visit http://www.ncqa.org/AboutNCQA.aspx.

National Health Interview Survey

The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the United States and is one of the major data collection programs of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For more information, visit http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm.

National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality

National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) is an action-oriented organization dedicated solely to improving the quality of health care provided to children. Founded in 1999, NICHQ's mission is to eliminate the gap between what is and what can be in health care for all children. For more information, visit http://www.nichq.org/index.html.

National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs

National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN). The primary goal of this module is to assess the prevalence and impact of special health care needs among children in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. This survey explores the extent to which children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have medical homes, adequate health insurance, and access to needed services. Other topics include care coordination and satisfaction with care. For more information, visit http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/slaits/cshcn.htm.

National Survey of Children's Health

National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) is sponsored by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration and examines the physical and emotional health of children ages 0-17 years of age. Special emphasis is placed on factors that may relate to well-being of children, including medical homes, family interactions, parental health, school and after-school experiences, and safe neighborhoods. For more information, visit http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/slaits/nsch.htm.

NCCC

Please see "National Center for Cultural Competence."

NCHS

Please see "National Center for Health Statistics."

NCQA

Please see "National Committee for Quality Assurance."

needs assessment

A study undertaken to determine the service requirements within a jurisdiction. For maternal and child health purposes, the study is to aimed at determining: 1) what is essential in terms of the provision of health services; 2) what is available; and 3) what is missing.

NHIS

Please see "National Health Interview Survey."

NICHQ

Please see "National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality."

NS-CSHCN

Please see the "National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs."

NSCH

Please see "National Survey of Children's Health."

p-value

A p-value shows the probability that sample data do not adequately represent the population from which they were drawn. (Source: BRFSS, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

performance measures

A gauge used to assess the performance of a process or function of any organization. Quantitative or qualitative measures of the care and services delivered to enrollees (process) or the end result of that care and services (outcomes). Performance measures can be used to assess other aspects of an individual or organization's performance such as access and availability of care, utilization of care, health plan stability, beneficiary characteristics, and other structural and operational aspect of health care services.

population

A population is every person in a category of interest. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

population estimate

An estimate that has been weighted to represent a population rather than only the sample. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

population weights

The population weights in the National Survey of CSHCN make adjustments for the probability of being selected, having a telephone, number of telephone lines, age, race/ethnicity and other demographic characteristics.

prevalence

The percent of the population with a particular condition or characteristic. To calculate prevalence you need to sum the number of individuals with a certain condition/characteristic and divide by the number of people in the population of interest over a specified time. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

preventive services

Activities aimed at reducing the incidence of health problems or disease prevalence in the community, or the personal risk factors for such diseases or conditions.

primary care

The provision of comprehensive personal health services that include health maintenance and preventive services, initial assessment of health problems, treatment of uncomplicated and diagnosed chronic health problems, and the overall management of an individual's or family's health care services.

probability

A probability provides a quantitative description of the likely occurrence of a particular event. Probability is conventionally expressed on a scale from 0 to 1; a rare event has a probability close to 0, a very common event has a probability close to 1. (Source: Department of Statistics of the University of Glasgow, http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/)

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QI

Please see "quality improvement."

quality improvement

Systematic and continued efforts to improve all aspects of an organization or process to achieve optimal performance.

random sampling

Random sampling is a sampling technique where we select a group of subjects (a sample) for study from a larger group (a population). Each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has a known, but possibly non-equal, chance of being included in the sample. By using random sampling, the likelihood of bias is reduced. (Source: Department of Statistics of the University of Glasgow, http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/)

regression equation

A regression equation allows us to express the relationship between two (or more) variables algebraically. It indicates the nature of the relationship between two (or more) variables. In particular, it indicates the extent to which you can predict some variables by knowing others, or the extent to which some are associated with others. (Source: Department of Statistics of the University of Glasgow, http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/)

reliability

Reliability is the consistency of your measurement; the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same conditions with the same subjects.

RUCA or RUCA Code

Please see "Rural Urban Commuting Area"

Rural Urban Commuting Area

Rural-Urban Commuting Areas (RUCAs) classification schema uses Census tract and/or zip code information to define urban and rural areas based on complex criteria including population density and population work commuting patterns. The RUCA framework categorizes cities and towns according to size and their functional relationships as measured by work commuting flows. The 33 separate RUCA classifications can be further aggregated for different applications by demographers, health care researchers, policy makers, and others. First released for public use in 1998, the RUCAs serve as the basis for eligibility for many federal programs and are being used by numerous health services researchers. An updated version (2.0) of the RUCA codes was released in 2005. For additional information, visit http://depts.washington.edu/uwruca/

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sample

A subset of a population that is selected to be representative of a target population. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

sample size

Sample size is the number of individuals selected for a study. For example, the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health randomly sampled 102,353 children ages 0-17 in the U.S. to represent the total population of over 72 million children. The symbol "n" respresents the number of responses (sample size) to a particular item in a survey in the Data Resource Center data query results tables. Sample size is related to the level of precision of prevalence estimates obtained through the survey. In general, larger samples provide estimates with a greater level of precision. The Data Resource Center recommends caution when interpreting results with "n" less than 50.

significance

Statistical significance is the probability that percentages or mean scores observed in the sample are truly different from each other. One way to determine statistical significance is to check whether the confidence intervals around the percentages or scores overlap. (Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20100403042030/http://www.talkingquality.gov/general/glossary.htm)

SLAITS

Please see "State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey."

standard deviation

Standard deviation is a measure of the spread or dispersion of a set of data. It is calculated by taking the square root of the variance. The more widely the values are spread out, the larger the standard deviation. (Source: Department of Statistics of the University of Glasgow, http://www.stats.gla.ac.uk/)

standard error

The standard error of a statistic is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of that statistic. Standard errors are important because they reflect how much sampling fluctuation a statistic will show. The standard error of a statistic depends on the sample size; in general the larger the sample size, the smaller the standard error. (Source: http://www.davidmlane.com/hyperstat/A103397.html).

standardization

Data standardization is the process of statistically adjusting data from two or more populations so that they may be compared, or in order to understand differences between the populations. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)

State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey

State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) collects important health care data at State and local levels. This data collection mechanism was developed by the National Center for Health Statistics (NHCS) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It supplements current national data collection strategies by providing in-depth State and local area data to meet various program and policy needs in an ever-changing health care system. For more information, visit http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/slaits.htm.

summary score

Summary scores are a device for reporting health care quality information as concisely as possible by condensing a number of quality measures into a single piece of information. For example, rather than report scores for five preventive care measures, you could report one summary score for "Preventive Care" that reflects performance on all five measures. (Source: http://web.archive.org/web/20100403042030/http://www.talkingquality.gov/general/glossary.htm)

Synthetic Estimate

Synthetic estimates are a way in which you can obtain local estimates using national data. A synthetic estimate is a prevalence estimate for a local area that is calculated by using descriptive or demographic data for local areas combined with state prevalence values. It is similar in concept to an indirect adjustment. A local estimate is most likely to differ from a state estimate if the demographic distribution at the local area differs from that of the state and the prevalence of the indicator varies by the same demographic factor. For more information on synthetic estimates, view our Local Uses of National and State Data Brief.

TA

Please see "technical assistance."

technical assistance

The process of providing recipients with expert assistance of specific health-related or administrative services that include systems review planning, policy options analysis, coordination, coalition building/training, data system development, needs assessment, performance indicators, health care reform wraparound services, CSHCN program development/evaluation, public health managed care quality standards development, public and private interagency integration, and, identification of core public health issues.

Title V

In 1935, Congress enacted Title V of the Social Security Act, which authorized the creation of the Maternal and Child Health Services programs, providing a foundation and structure for ensuring the health of mothers and children for more than 60 years. Title V is administered by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) as part of the Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (Source: MCHB, http://mchb.hrsa.gov)

Title V Block Grants

The Title V Block Grant Program has as a general purpose the improvement of the health of all mothers and children in the nation, in keeping with the national health objectives established by the Public Health Service Act for the year 2000. The Block Grant Program has three components: Formula Block Grants to 59 States and other political jurisdictions, Special Projects of Regional and National Significance (SPRANS), and Community Integrated Service Systems (CISS) Grants. (Source: MCHB, http://mchb.hrsa.gov)

Title V Information System

Title V Information System (TVIS) electronically captures data from annual Title V Block Grant applications and reports submitted by all 59 U.S. States, Territories, and Jurisdictions and provides information on key measures and indicators of maternal and child health (MCH) in the United States. (Source: MCHB, http://mchb.hrsa.gov)

TVIS

Please see "Title V Information System."

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validity

Validity is the best available approximation to the truth or falsity of a given inference, proposition or conclusion (Cook and Campbell, 1979), or the accuracy of your measurement. There are four types of validity: conclusion validity, internal validity, construct validity, and external validity.

variable

A variable is any measured characteristic or attribute that differs for different subjects.

weighted estimate

Estimated number in population adjusted (weighted) to represent total population of children, 0 -17 yrs old, in the sampled area. (Source: BRFSS website, http://www.cdc.gov/brfss)